View Post

Strategies for Cyber Diplomacy Capacity Building

Patryk Pawlak Commentary

Strengthening global capacities to address the challenges in the field of cyber diplomacy has lately attracted the attention of the cyber capacity building community. Even though the scope and size of such projects remains underreported, the number of institutions and organisations funding, implementing and receiving support for such projects is growing. But how can we ensure that the burgeoning field …

View Post

Satellite Internet Access in Times of Cyber Conflict

Berna Akcali Gur Commentary

On 26 February 2022, two days after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Elon Musk, SpaceX founder and CEO, responded to a request from the Ukrainian deputy prime minister, confirming on Twitter that Starlink satellite internet service is active in Ukraine. A technology that had thus far been considered an experimental alternative to undersea and on-the-ground telecommunication services suddenly became the …

View Post

The Curious Absence of Chinese Cyber Deterrence

Juha Vuori Commentary

While China’s political and academic discourse on cybersecurity uses many of the same concepts as other countries’, the notion of deterrence is largely missing from its vocabulary. This can be explained by China’s relative vulnerability to cyberattacks: deterrence through denial lacks credibility and deterrence through punishment would be counter-productive. China has chosen instead to promote an international convention on interstate …

View Post

Microtargeted Propaganda by Foreign Actors

Ronan Ó Fathaigh Commentary

Microtargeting involves collecting information about people and using that information to show them targeted political advertisements. Such microtargeting enables advertisers to tailor ads to specific groups of people, for instance people who visit certain websites or share specific characteristics. Microtargeted propaganda can be more effective, more efficient and more hidden than traditional propaganda. Consequently, its use, especially by foreign actors, …

View Post

Ukraine: Cyber Operations and Digital Technologies

Camino Kavanagh Commentary

Towards the end of 2021, Russia began a military build-up around Ukraine. Then, after several months unsuccessfully pressuring the Ukrainian government to accede to its demands, Russia invaded Ukraine on 24 February 2022. This post collects and synthesises information and perspectives on the cyber and information technology-related aspects of the conflict thus far, including the cyber operations and tactics of …

View Post

Unpacking Brazil’s Cyber Diplomacy

Louise Marie Hurel Commentary

Brazil’s diplomacy has historically been one of soft power and brokering discussions. In Internet governance, the country has been internationally recognised for to its multi-stakeholder governance model and for advocating for privacy in the digital age. As cyber threats become a national security concern and a key part of the political agenda in the run-up to 2022 presidential elections, the …

View Post

Data Protection in China

Rogier Creemers Commentary

In the summer of 2021, China’s National People’s Congress passed two pieces of data-related legislation, the Data Security Law (DSL) and the Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL). These laws, which entered into force in September and November respectively, form the centre of what will become a comprehensive regulatory architecture governing all important aspects of data collection, storage, processing, trading and …

View Post

The Political Economy of European Cybersecurity

Antonio Calcara Commentary

Public-private cooperation is often suggested as one response to an increasingly volatile digital security environment. But there has been little attention paid to how outcomes at the EU level are influenced by how such cooperation is organised in practice, what its drivers are and specific models of organising relations between the public and private sector. By making a distinction between …

View Post

Securing Critical Gas Infrastructure

Clemente Fuggini Commentary

Europe relies heavily on imported natural gas, and the Gas Critical Infrastructure (GCI) involved in transporting, storing and distributing it must be made secure and resilient to both physical and cyber threats. However, the complexity of the gas network – including its diversity of transportation lines, geographies crossed, and production and storage facilities – make it a challenging environment to …

View Post

Net Politics in Africa

Nnenna Ifeanyi-Ajufo Commentary

African governments’ views on cybersecurity are not homogenous and actions that indicate ideals of “net nationalism” continue to emerge in parts of Africa. A politics of net nationalism utterly focused on individual governmental interests will imperil international cooperation, mutual legal assistance and the cross-border flow of information, and may derail international cybersecurity efforts, especially harmful to a region like Africa …