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Personal Data and International Organisations: Hacks Off!

Eneken Tikk Opinions

Harmful, malicious and hostile cyber activities against international institutions, entire populations and vulnerable groups are appalling, regardless of whether they are committed by state or non-state actors. It is time to talk restraint when it comes to cyberattacks and information operations targeting international organisations and personal data. The compromise of personal data and confidential information on the servers of the …

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Charting of National Attribution Policies

Mika Kerttunen Opinions

States’ drafting of explicit national attribution policies is anchored in the law of state responsibility in cyberspace. Such policies do not necessarily promote frequent (or any) attribution. Rather, they draw attention to the multifaceted aspects of attribution and the need for careful political consideration in making affirmative, deferring or negative attribution decisions. While actual content direction remains the prerogative of …

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The EU’s Fragmented Cybersecurity Market

Clara Jammot Opinions

While the EU recognises the importance of cybersecurity policies, it continues to lag behind certain international counterparts in terms of creating a unified ecosystem and providing investment opportunities. One of the central problems hindering the EU is the fragmentation of its cybersecurity market, which impedes European cybersecurity companies from scaling up and forces them to look for alternative markets to …

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EU Cyber Sanctions and Cyber Norms

Sebastian Pantin Urdaneta Opinions

In the absence of clear international law on state-led or sponsored cyber activity, cyber norms are surrounded by ambiguity and different interpretations. Cyber sanctions are a relatively new tool the EU has to promote norms on appropriate state behaviour in cyberspace and clarify such ambiguity. However, the EU has to be careful in its application of cyber sanctions to avoid …

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The EU’s Approach to e-Evidence

Dan Svantesson Opinions

Electronic evidence (‘e-evidence’) plays a central role in the fight against crime both online and offline. But the goal of ensuring access to such evidence must be reconciled with the need for protecting data privacy and other fundamental rights. The European Union is in the process of adopting a regulatory framework for e-evidence. It needs to strike the right balance …

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Rule of Law in Cyberspace

Mika Kerttunen Opinions

As Montesquieu advocated, the rule of law and separation of powers are necessary to protect citizens and individuals from arbitrary rule by the state. Intensified measures to secure cyberspace risk leading to expert and political decisionmaking being kept outside of public and political debate and scrutiny. Deliberate separation of state cyber agencies and functions strengthens the rule of law, transparency …

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Ransomware: a Crisis in Need of a Global Response

Michael Daniel Opinions

Ransomware has become a lucrative money-making enterprise for criminals and a useful tool for some nations, with consequences for national security, economic prosperity, and public health and safety. Its global nature means that individual countries or organizations cannot successfully thwart this threat alone—it will require complex, sustained, joint, collaborative international action. A U.S. politician once said, “All politics is local.”  …

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Debunking Strategic Autonomy

Paul Timmers Opinions

Strategic autonomy continues to be “hot” in Brussels, Berlin and Paris. Not a week passes without a new policy proposal by the European Commission or a letter from a number of European Heads of State urging the strengthening of strategic autonomy and defence of sovereignty. As the thinking on strategic autonomy is evolving, it’s time to take a critical look …

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Digital Sovereignty Viewed from Asia

Farlina Said Opinions

The rapid pace of global digital transformation has led to new ideas concerning the relationships between economic growth, human development, human rights and national security. The mix of these policies has resulted in many forms of techno-nationalism. Which paradigm a country chooses as dominant may determine its priorities and the future. The US-led objections, based on national security concerns, to …

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India’s Vision for Cyber Diplomacy

Asoke Mukerji Opinions

India’s rapid integration into the Digital Economy has been driven by her financial and telecoms sector reforms. The growth of trade, manufacturing, services and investment sectors have generated a $3 trillion economy. The concerns over sustainability of this growth have turned India’s interest in a stable and secure international digital environment into a priority. International trade contributes 40% of India’s …