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German Cybersecurity Policy 2021-2025

Alexandra Paulus Commentary

The new German government will mean a shift for the country’s cybersecurity policy. The joint coalition agreement of the three ruling parties lays out their plans for the next four years and signals changes of course in areas like encryption policy and “hackbacks”. In other fields – particularly cyber diplomacy – the devil will be in the details. The country’s …

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EU Cyber Sanctions and Cyber Norms

Sebastian Pantin Urdaneta Opinions

In the absence of clear international law on state-led or sponsored cyber activity, cyber norms are surrounded by ambiguity and different interpretations. Cyber sanctions are a relatively new tool the EU has to promote norms on appropriate state behaviour in cyberspace and clarify such ambiguity. However, the EU has to be careful in its application of cyber sanctions to avoid …

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Cybersecurity Convergence in the BRICS Countries

Luca Belli Commentary

The thirteenth BRICS Summit took place on 9 September 2021 and cybersecurity featured prominently amongst the priorities identified by BRICS leaders.  The BRICS – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa – are explicitly advocating for enhanced cooperation on cybersecurity issues, both at the international and intra-BRICS level. The facility with which cooperation can be enhanced remains unclear, but BRICS priorities …

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Cyber Diplomacy in 2021: Mid-term Review

Eneken Tikk Commentary

The spring of 2021 brought two landmark international cybersecurity events: all UN member states lined up behind the final report of the Open-ended Working Group, and the UN GGE of 25 government experts was able to produce a consensus report. These breakthroughs mark the beginning of a more nuanced dialogue and an era in which, to break truly common ground …

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India’s Vision for Cyber Diplomacy

Asoke Mukerji Opinions

India’s rapid integration into the Digital Economy has been driven by her financial and telecoms sector reforms. The growth of trade, manufacturing, services and investment sectors have generated a $3 trillion economy. The concerns over sustainability of this growth have turned India’s interest in a stable and secure international digital environment into a priority. International trade contributes 40% of India’s …

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Could Cyber-Diplomacy Learn From Outer Space?

Andre Barrinha Opinions

While the Open Ended Working Group (OEWG) consensus report on ICTs in the context of international security is perhaps a successful compromise, it brought limited novelty in terms of cyber norms. Fifty-five years ago, there was another “space” in need of international regulation as a consequence of technological innovation: outer space, which yielded concrete results in the form of the …

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Cyber Norms: Specialisation from Fragmentation?

Evan Burke Commentary

What are the ‘rules of the road’ for cyberspace, and who sets them? The question has risen in prominence and priority as cyber threats have grown more severe. A lack of clarity about acceptable behaviour enables destabilising cyber activity, such as the recent Microsoft Exchange hack by suspected state-sponsored actors and the persistent ransomware attacks targeting hospitals around the world. …

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Navigating Europe’s Cybersecurity

Nathalie van Raemdonck Interviews

A native Estonian, Juhan Lepassaar is no stranger to cybersecurity and the inner workings of the European Union. Between 2014 and 2019 he was the head of cabinet of Andrus Ansip, Vice-President for Digital Single Market in the Juncker Commission. In this role he was also involved in the preparation and the subsequent legislative phases of the Cybersecurity Act, which significantly strengthened the competences of the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity, which he currently heads.

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Southeast Asia in the Global Digital War

Gayathry Venkiteswaran Commentary

China’s push for “cyber sovereignty” in global tech discussions is attracting an audience in regions like Southeast Asia. Here, states and the private sector are ready markets for technologies, but they are also engaged in delicate diplomacy with China and the US against the backdrop of geo-security interests. Understanding the dynamics of the region requires a nuanced critical approach.